The results of the newly IGCP project combine basic geoscientific research and its application .By so doing he hope to give Earth science a status that reflects the importance that this discipline plays in the everyday life of tropical African people and thus support the emergence of the next generation of geoscientists in Africa who are equiped with necessary tools, network, and perspectives to apply sound science to solving and benefiting from the challenge and opportunities of sustainable development.
a) in basic sciences
• Detail understanding of crustal architecture, tectonic evolution and regional geology of
the major tectonics structures that bound the cratonic blocks of Central Africa and the connection with NE Brazil. Understanding of their tectonics evolution is expected to illuminate the history of many complex structures in older, African-type orogens and thus contribute to a more detailed understanding of the architecture of the continental crust.
• Better establishing genetic links between the geodynamic processes that form the Pan-
African fold belt against the Congo Craton and the specific controls on the most important ore deposits.
· Elucidation of the structural reactivation of early formed deep basement structures, paying special attention to Mesozoic rifting and and regional distribution of historical and present day seismicity. An important result of the proposed study concerns structural reactivation of continental crust. The Central Africa represents an ideal laboratory to study reactivation.
• The new IGCP project will among others focus on the potential of sedimentology in helping to provide enough energy for the region. Large energy resources, mainly in form of oil and gas, are stored in the sedimentary basins of the region, both onshore and offshore. However, new concepts are needed to maintain and enhance energy
production in the future. This includes modern techniques in reconstructing andmodeling the history and geometry of these basins, as well as new concepts, such as the exploration and exploitation of unconventional reservoirs. Modern techniques are needed to better understand risks such as diagenesis of the reservoir.
•Quantification and clarification of the links between basements structures, neotectonic, climate change and landscape evolution Our results will provide and enhanced model that can be used to better understand catastrophic vents like seismic shaking, landslides, flooding which are more or less related to tectonic, geomorphology and climate.
•Elucidation of the degree and extent of regional/local climate change and its influence on weathering depths and decomposition of rocks, option available to the population and their ability to adapt themselves and their lifestyle to these changes
b) In respect of benefit to society
•The project will involve leading researchers on tectonics, landscape evolution, neotectonics and economic geology from developed and developing countries. This will contribute to the cross fertilization of social understanding and cultivate cooperation for many years to come.
•Promotion of the newest developments in advanced methods such as Remote Sensing, AMS and REM and makes examples of their application available on geological mapping ,structural geology and problems of Quaternary geology in some of the poorer countries in the world
•The project will bring students together with young and senior scientists and experts from whom they can learn (as it was the case during IGCP616Y). The project will introduce and promote graduate and post-graduate students and other highly qualified personnel faciliting collaboration between scientists from different countries and institutions;
•Much of the work is being conducted in central and west Africa-based university staff and students who will directly benefit enormously from involvement in such a project.
•The project will bridge the gap between scientific effort and public interest giving the public an insight into the nature of major geological structures, tectonic processes and hydromorphic events that directly affect their lives.
•Detail insight into the geological structures and tectonic processes that shape the crust of west and central Africa allows for the formulation of models of ore genesis that form the basis for exploration and discovery of new mineral resources and will also be a major aid to the distribution and management of groundwater. The mineral richness of Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences of central Africa is legendary. Most of the deposits have been mined for gold (Au), but some yield rutile (Ru), cupper (Cu), lead (Pb), tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo), Diamond is also well know and explored in CAR. The growing demand for these commodities has stimulated increasing exploration in third world countries.And improved understanding of the IGCP Project Proposal From 20 structure and tectonic evolution of the CAFB will lead to better prediction of occurrences.
•75% of Africa petroleum has been generated during the past 30 m.y, and 50% of it lies in reservoirs of Eocene to Holocene age which are a consequence of the erosion of the newly rising swells developed (fully 75 swells) in Afro-Arabia and on the oceanic part of the African plate . Mesozoic and Cenozoic fault-bounded sedimentary basins ( Benue, Mbéré and Djerem , Dobo and Birao, Bake and Abu Gabra (Sudan)) more or less rich in oil and gas resources are example of such structure in central Africa. An improved understanding of their structure and tectonic evolution will lead to better exploration policies in them.
•Sediments and sedimentary rocks are of immense relevance for the society. Not only have they formed the ultimate base for agriculture, in form of soils, but also the foundation of modern society, as building materials. Sediments are of uttermost importance as sedimentary deposits of elements such as iron, titanium, uranium, gold, silver, lead and chromiumIn the last decades, fuelled by the growing demand of society for such elements and, at least of comparable relevance, for energy, the importance of sediments and sedimentary rocks has steadily increased. Energy has to be exploited from sedimentary basins in adequate amounts and in an environmentally acceptable manner. Sedimentologists are challenged to play their role in providing basic data and concepts to answer these important questions.
•Right scientific understanding of cause for geological/hydromorphic events such as earthquakes, landslides, flooding, etc… is a crucial aspect in the development of hazards and risk assessment. Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, land sliding, volcanic activity and flooding occur worldwide. However, their impact is greater in developing countries, where they occur very often. The proposed project will provide an enhanced tectonic model that can be used to better understand the risks posed by seismic shaking, landslides, which are more or less related to tectonic.
•Document quantify and better understanding interacting processes between landscape, infrastructure and agriculture will help to develop models for urban, national and international planning and commercial recreational use.
•Elucidation of extend of regional or local climate fluctuation/change is crucial for poorest people living in these region with limited potential for adaptation and directly affected by adverse impacts of climate change and usually unable to deal with then unaided.